Day 1 :
- Brain Disorders | Brain Cancer & Tumors | Neuropharmacology | Neurological Disorders | Neurology of Brain | Addiction & Brain Disorders | Neurodegeneration & Aging Disorders | Neuroimmunology | Brain Complications
Banaras Hindu University, India
Time : 09:00-09:30
Vijaya Nath Mishra is currently working as a Professor at Department of Neurology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. His clinical interest is Neurodegeneration, Neurological Diseases, Imaging, Brain and many more.
Gangetic belt is one of the heavily populated areas in the world with people depending on Ganga River for daily needs. Throughout this stretch River, Ganges is life-line for the most densely populated area of the world having more than 4,000,000 people for multiple purposes. River Ganga has been polluted over the last several decades with increasing population, urbanization, defective sewage treatment and improper government policies. This expansion in the population results in extensively polluted water in river Ganga and can be the source of onset of several diseases. It has been witnessed the escalated growth of disease and disorders arising from the polluted river including many neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
Recently many studies have shown that Ganga water contains many heavy metal toxins and chemical toxins, which are far above the permissible limits and are harmful to human life. The concentration of heavy metal in sediments of Ganga river was examined along a 37-km stretch to find out whether there is a significant difference between sites situated upstream and downstream of Varanasi urban core. Pandey et al. found that metal concentration increased consistently along the studying gradient, showing the influence of urban sources. Concentration in the river sediment was found highest for Fe followed by Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in Varanasi. Etiology of PD is mainly interplay between environmental and genetic factors. Toxic exposure to non-pesticide compounds, such as organohalogens, metals and solvents have received strong support as risk factors for PD and other parkinsonian disorders. People living near the Gangetic belt have the source of drinking water from the river Ganges itself.
Our study is a hospital based survey with prospective observational study involving 88 PD patients. Of these 88 PD patients, 52 were from Gangetic belt and 36 from the non-Gangetic region. For identification of the disease severity, we applied the modified H and Y scale on all the idiopathic PD (IPD) patients. Comparison of the modified H and Y scale between the two groups (Gangetic IPD and non-Gangetic IPD) showed that modified H and Y scale is higher in Gangetic belt group with a t value of 5.105 and is statistically significant with a p-value of <0.001.
The PD patients in the Gangetic belt were more severely affected with more severe H and Y scale. There are few strengths of the present study. First, this is the first study to the best of our knowledge looking into the prevalence of neurodegenerative disease and its link to the river population. Second, there are no previous studies done to show the severity of neurodegenerative disease in Gangetic belt. Exposure to polluted water of Ganga river might be act as bioaccumulation sink of various heavy metals. These heavy metals would increase the severity, early progression of Parkinsonism in Gangetic belts and result in severe modified H and Y scale in Gangetic disease group.
Mohamed A. Fahmy Zeid completed Master of General Surgery in 1988 and pursued his fellowship in the department of Neurosurgery in 1994. He earned doctorate degree in Neurological surgery in 1994. He was the House officer in Ministry of Health Hospitals and Alexandria university Hospitals for one year from 1983 to 1984. He worked as physician in the Ministry of Health Hospitals from 1984 to 1987. He is Registrar of Neurosurgery in private hospital from 1987 to 1988. He is Assistant lecturer of Neurosurgical department of Alexandria University Hospitals from 1988 to 1994. He is chief consultant of Neurosurgery in Saqr Hospitals, UAE from 2000 to 2003.He visited to Neurological surgery department, Royal College of Medicine, London in 2001. He is working as Professor of Neurosurgery department at Alexandria University from 2010 to till date and he is the Founder & President of Brain & Skull Egyptian Society from Last October 2017.
Subjects: Petrous Meningioma are benign lesions, their total surgical excision is the only method for complete cure, However ,their excision are confronted by deep location and critical anatomical relation and exact site of origin from the petrous bone, this study was aimed to plan a surgical strategy based on site of attachment of the lesion in the petrous bone.
Methods: Twenty-Five were studied preoperatively by neuro-imaging especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to classify the types of petrous meningiomas, all cases were studied operatively for the extent of the tumor removal, clinical status also, follows up with histo-pathological verification.
Results: Radical Surgical removal was achieved in sixteen patients (64%), subtotal removal in five cases (20%) and incomplete removal in another four cases (16 %).
Conclusion: Complete Surgical excision of the petrous meningioma can be planned preoperatively depending on exact site of attachment to the petrous bone. There were four different zones on surface of petrous bone on which, different type of surgical approach can be used to achieve a better result as regards the safety of the patient and the radicality of tumor excision.
University of Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia
Time : 10:00-10:30
Stroke is known worldwide as the leading cause of premature death and disability. Developing countries are most exposed to the dual burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Poor people are increasingly affected by stroke due to changing risk factors in the population and, most tragically, not being able to afford the high costs of stroke treatment. Despite significant improvements in primary prevention and acute care over the last few decades, stroke remains a catastrophic illness. Unchangeable risk factors for stroke are some established and changeable risk factors for age, gender, race, ethnicity, heredity, and ischemic stroke.
Physiology Aje Institute of Technology, Nigeria
Time : 10:30-11:00
Adebimpe John Omolola is currently working as a Lecture at Physiology Aje Institute of Technology, Nigeria. His research interests are Lipopolysaccharide, Neuroscience and Alzheimer’s disease.
Background: Kolaviron is a mixture of bioflavonoids of seed Garcinia kola, and has been previously shown to exhibit Nrf2 antioxidant-mediated inhibition of neuroinflammation in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. In this study we investigated neuroprotective effects of kolaviron in LPS-induced memory impairment in rats.
Method: Wistar rats (225–250) g was used for this study. Memory impairment was induced with the systematic administration of 250µg/mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of kolaviron on the cognition and learning processes were assessed using the behavioral responses in the Morris water maze model. Effects of LPS injections on the physiological activities were assessed by biochemical assays before and after treatment.
Results: Peripheral administration of LPS was showed to reduce cognitive and locomotor process. It also lead to reductions in the core body temperature, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase levels, with an increase in Membrane lipid-peroxidation (MDA), intracellular glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO2). These pro-inflammatory mediators produced in response to LPS are hypothesized to affect cognition, and kolaviron was able to ameliorate the effect by significantly improving the cognitive and learning processes, revealed in the reduction of escape latency and path-length during the probe trial and increase in time spent within the quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. Similarly, LPS at 250µg/kg induced a hypothermic effect in the treated animals. Kolaviron significantly was able to ameliorate the level of SOD and CAT by causing a significant increase while it caused a significant reduction in the level of NO2, GSH, and MDA.
Conclusion: Kolaviron has considerable anti-inflammatory potentials, reducing lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages. The memory-enhancing activity of kolaviron was comparable to Sulindac sulfide (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug).
Keywords: Kolaviron, Lipopolysaccharide, Alzheimer’s disease, Macrophages.